All you need to know about Head and Neck Cancer

Dr Sashikanth Jonnalagadda 
April 14, 2021

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The Head and Neck is a very complex region of the body and consists of several subsites like the Oral Cavity, Oropharynx (Throat), Larynx (voice box), Thyroid, Paranasal Sinuses, and Neck Lymph Nodes. Cancer that occurs in the Oral Cavity (mouth), throat, nose, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands, and other areas of the head and neck are considered Head and Neck cancer.  
  
Squamous cell carcinomas arise in the lining of the mouth, nose, and throat, account for the majority of these cancers.  
  
Because of the widespread use of Tobacco (gutka, pan masala, and betelnut), oral cancers are the most common form of cancer in India and it accounts for roughly 30 percent of all cancers in the body. Oral Cancers and other Head and Neck Cancers are also increased by smoking and alcohol consumption. 
  
Approximately 20 people out of 1,00,000 population are diagnosed with Head and Neck Cancer.  
  
It is very important to pay attention to symptoms such as non-healing ulcers in the mouth or throat, bleeding from mouth or nose, persisting sore throat, breathing or swallowing difficulty, change in voice, and swellings in the neck and face region. 
  
Head and neck tumors affect the patient's ability to chew, swallow, speak and breathe. As a result, early detection of the tumor is critical in order to increase the patient's chances of survival as well as his or her ability to speak and swallow normally during treatment. 
  
Treatment Options 

These symptoms need to be evaluated with a concerned Head and Neck Onco Surgeons who helps patients to make an informed decision about their treatment options.  The first step is to obtain a tissue sample from the affected area, which is done by a biopsy. The type of cancer will be confirmed by Histopathology, which will decide further management. 
 
The next step is staging, which entails deciding how far cancer has spread. It will be obtained by Radiological Imaging such as CT, MRI, and, on rare occasions PET scan. 
 
Cancers can be classified into four stages based on the extent of their spread. Usually, head and neck cancers are treated with surgery followed by adjuvant treatment such as radiation and chemotherapy, if necessary. The tumor and neck nodes are removed during surgery. Plastic surgery procedures are used to reconstruct the shape and function of the removed organ, allowing the patient to appear and function as normally as possible. 
  
After the treatment, the patient is kept on close surveillance for 3 to 5 years with a follow-up with his or her Head and Neck Surgeon. 

 

By Dr. Sashikanth Jonnalagadda is the Consultant - ENT, Head and Neck Oncology at American Oncology Institute

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News Network
August 9,2022

At least 16 children were among 45 Palestinians killed by Israeli army’s recent 3-day long airstrikes on besieged Gaza strip. Dozens of children were among the 360 injured in the Israeli bombardment from August 5 to 7. Besides, dozens of children were orphaned. 

"There is no safe space in the Gaza Strip for Palestinian children and their families and they increasingly bear the brunt of Israel’s repeated military offensives," Ayed Abu Eqtaish, the accountability programme director at the NGO Defence for Children International - Palestine (DCIP), said in a statement.

While a ceasefire came into effect on August 7 following an agreement brokered by Egypt, Palestinians have lamented the devastating bombing campaign as more details emerge of those who died.

The Israeli army has claimed that some of the civilian casualties were killed by misfired rockets, without providing independently-verified evidence. However, the Palestinian health ministry has rejected the Israel’s claim as blatant lie and confirmed that all of the people killed, including the 16 children, died as a result of Israeli air strikes.

Here is the list of 16 children killed by Israel in 3 days

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Alaa ِAbdullah Qaddoum (5)

She was among the first casualties on Friday (August 5) following Israel's decision to launch air strikes on the besieged Gaza Strip. She died while she was playing with friends outside her home in the Shujaiya neighbourhood in the northern Gaza Strip. Her seven-year-old brother and father were wounded in the strike.

Momen Muhammed ِAhmed al-Nairab (5)

He was killed in Israeli air strike on Saturday on the Jabalia refugee camp in the northern Gaza Strip. The camp is one of the most densely populated places on Earth and houses more than 114,000 people.

Hazem Muhammed Ali Salem (9) 

According to documentation collected by Defence for Children International, Hazem Muhammed Ali Salem, nine, was among the four children in the blast on the Jabalia refugee camp on Saturday. Israel says it wasn't behind the raid, but Palestinian sources say it could not have come from anywhere else.

Ahmed Muhammed al-Nairab (11) 

Ahmed Walid Ahmed al-Farram (16)

They were among the four children killed on Saturday when Israeli warplanes struck the Jabalia refugee camp.

According to the UN agency for Palestinian refugees (Unrwa), the camp suffers from high unemployment, regular electricity cuts and a contaminated water supply.

Muhammed Iyad Muhammed Hassouna (14)

He was killed when an Israeli air strike targeted his home in Rafah in the southern Gaza Strip. At least eight people were killed in the raid.

Fatma Aaed Abdulfattah Ubaid (15)

She was among nine children killed in the space of 30 minutes, shortly before the ceasefire was announced. She was killed in Beit Hanoun on Sunday in the northern Gaza Strip.

Ahmed Yasser Nimr al-Nabahin (9)

Muhammed Yasser Nimr al-Nabahin (12)

Dalia Yasser Nimr al-Nabahin (13)

An Israeli air strike on the Bureij refugee camp on Sunday killed Yasser al-Nabahin and his three children, Muhammed Yasser Nimr al-Nabahin, 13; Ahmed Yasser Nimr al-Nabahin, 9; and their sister, Dalia Yasser Nimr al-Nabahin, 13.

Muhammed Salah Nijm (16) 

An Israeli air strike on the Falluja cemetery in northern Gaza on Sunday killed five boys as they sat near a grave.  Muhammed Salah Nijm was among those killed.

Hamed Haidar Hamed Nijm (16)

He was among those killed in Sunday's raid on the graveyard. Four of the boys were cousins and the fifth was their friend, according to local sources. 

Jamil Nijm Jamil Nijm (4)

He was the youngest child to be killed during Israel's offensive on the Gaza Strip. 

Jamil Ihab Nijm (13)

He was the fourth child from the Nijm family to be killed in Sunday's suspected air strike.

Nazmi Fayez Abdulhadi Abukarsh (16) 

A friend of the Nijm boys, he was killed in the air strike on the graveyard.

Hanin Walid Muhammed Abuqaida (10)

She was injured in an air strike on the Jabalia refugee camp on Sunday but succumbed to her wounds on Monday.

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News Network
August 7,2022

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Gaza Strip, Aug 7: The latest bout of airstrikes by the Israeli regime in the north and the south of the besieged Gaza Strip has claimed the lives of eight Palestinian children, and the second senior commander of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad resistance movement.

In a statement on Sunday, Islamic Jihad confirmed that Khaled Mansour, its commander in the south of the Gaza Strip, had been killed in an Israeli raid on Saturday.

Mansour is the second high-ranking member of Islamic Jihad to be killed since Israel carried out airstrikes on Gaza on Friday when it assassinated Tayseer al-Jabari, a senior commander of the Islamic Jihad movement in the north.

Moreover, several children have been killed in the Gaza Strip as Israeli jets bombed the besieged enclave for a second day.

At least six children were killed in a blast in a residential area near the Jabaliya refugee camp north of the Gaza Strip on Saturday bringing the tally of children killed since Friday to eight. Among them are two brothers aged five and 11 in the Jabaliya refugee camp.

Medical sources in Gaza identified the two brothers killed in the Israeli assault as Moamen Al-Nayrab and Ahmed Al-Nayrab, with the Palestinian Health Ministry saying the regime’s brutal raid had since Friday left at least 34 people dead and 215 wounded.

"I can't even put to words what I have just witnessed, I'm still shaking," Ahamd Arafah, an eyewitness, said as he recounted the horrific scenes in an interview with the Middle East Eye.

"We were watching the news like everyone, then we heard screaming and went outside. I saw frightening scenes. Blood-covered children, body parts all over the street, people running around confused. It was literally a massacre. There are no other words to describe it. I'm still in shock at what I saw. They were just children. What is their crime?"

Tensions have soared across the coastal enclave and the occupied territories since Friday, when the Israeli regime carried out a massacre against the Gaza Strip, killing scores of people and hitting a series of what it said were military targets.

Palestinian authorities said that 650 housing units have been damaged in the first 24 hours of the Israeli onslaught on Gaza, which has targeted several residential towers.

Israel stopped the planned transport of fuel into Gaza before it struck on Friday, crippling the territory's lone power plant and reducing electricity to around eight hours per day, and drawing warnings from health officials that hospitals would be severely impacted within days.

In response to the brutal Israeli airstrikes, Palestinian resistance forces fired more than 400 rockets at Israel, setting off air raid sirens and sending settlers running to bomb shelters.

The Islamic Jihad called the retaliatory barrage only an “initial response” to the Israeli bloodbath, with the Palestinian resistance movement's Secretary General Ziad al-Nakhalah saying the Israeli enemy must expect a "non-stop" confrontation in the wake of the aggression.

According to a report by Reuters Egypt said it was engaged in intensive talks to calm the situation.

An Egyptian intelligence delegation headed by Major General Ahmed Abdelkhaliq arrived in Israel on Saturday and would be traveling to Gaza for mediation talks, hoping to secure a day's ceasefire in order to carry out the talks, the report citing unnamed Egyptian security sources added.

Israel said on Saturday it is preparing for its aerial operation in Gaza to last a week, saying there are currently no discussions on a ceasefire with Islamic Jihad. The military “is preparing for the operation to last week" and is "not currently holding ceasefire negotiations,” it said.

Last May, Gaza’s resistance groups fired around 4,000 rockets during the 11-day Operation Sword of al-Quds after the Israeli regime initiated the war, which marked the fourth wholesale military campaign by the occupying regime against the densely-populated Palestinian enclave.

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News Network
August 11,2022

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Koppal, Aug 11: Two persons were killed and six others were seriously injured in a clash between two groups belonging to different communities in Hulihaidar village of Koppal district in Karnataka on Thursday. 

The deceased have been identified as Basha Wali Sab Maligaddi (22) and Shamappa Talawar (60). The injured are undergoing treatment at a hospital. 
 
A tense atmosphere has prevailed in the village. Police have tightened the security. More details are yet to be known.

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