Breast Cancer Awareness Month: What you need to know about your breast

Dr Pragnya Chigurupati Narra
October 17, 2020


The breast is a mass of glandular, fibrous and fatty tissue. It is placed over the pectoral (chest) muscle and attached by ligaments called Cooper’s ligaments. Development of these parts of the breast begin at puberty and are dependent on hormones such as estrogen and progesterone. Women may have many changes in their breast during any point of their life. Some are dependent on their menstrual cycle. Others are linked to birth control pills, hormone replacement therapy, family history or lifestyle changes. Most breast conditions are not cancer. They arise from an abnormality in the normal development and ageing of breast tissue.

October is breast cancer awareness month. In a spirit of raising-awareness, we're giving you a two-part series on breast changes in - 1)Premenopausal women 2)Post-menopausal women

Part 1 - Premenopausal women

Breast pain

The most common complaint amongst younger women is pain linked to the menstrual cycle. This is called “Cyclical mastalgia”. It is almost always due to our hormones (estrogen and progesterone). As the pain does not always affect both the breasts, there might be other causes to pain in a single breast. This type of pain might begin at ovulation and last all though the menstrual cycle. Pain that involves both the breasts and is cyclical is generally not harmful. When the breast pain does not correlate with her menstrual cycle, it is called “Non-cyclical breast pain”. It is advisable to chart the breast pain to understand the link better. The pain might be minimal to so severe that you can’t wear tight clothes or move around freely.

When you experience such pain, wear a good bra with adequate support. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle but limiting alcohol, caffeine and increasing greens in your diet are helpful. Pain killers such as Paracetamol may be taken in recommended doses if the pain is severe. Vitamin E capsules and massaging breasts with EPO (Evening primrose oil) have shown some benefit in patients.

Fibrocystic breast changes

These changes are what you feel in your breast prior to your menstrual cycle, commonly in the third and fourth decades of life.  Breasts may feel heavy, sore or lumpy. These changes occur due to an overdrive of estrogen and a deficiency of progesterone. Although these are not cancerous, having certain pathologically proven lesions of the breast which fall under the “fibrocystic” category increase the risk of cancer three-fold.


Infections are common in breast feeding mothers, smokers and women with systemic illnesses. They may present with lumps, nipple discharge, pain or fever. It is very important to identify and treat these symptoms which may range from simple medical management to surgical treatment.


Women who develop a cyst complain of a sudden development of a lump in the breast overnight. Cysts are fluid filled structures in the breast which occur due to a blocked duct or hormonal changes. They are most commonly benign. However, certain cysts may have a small component of a cancerous or precancerous lesion. They are generally seen in the third or the fourth decades of life.

They can be soft or hard. They may be felt by the hand or seen on imaging with a mammogram. They are generally observed or aspirated with a small needle.

Tumors (Benign)

Fibroadenomas (FA) are benign lumps that occur commonly in younger women, especially teens. They however can occur at any age group. They are mobile and slip when being felt. Women generally feel them when examining their breasts. If they are small and not growing, they maybe observed. However, if they are increasing in size or are symptomatic, simple removal is suggested. They very rarely turn cancerous (Complex fibroadenomas)

Phyllodes tumors are generally seen in the third and fourth decades of life and are prone to growing rapidly, changing the shape of the breast. The treatment is relatively complicated compared to a FA. Based on the nature of the tumor, radiotherapy might be required in certain cases and recurrences are common unless they are removed completely.

Breast Cancer

Currently, in India, the rates of cancer have increased in women between the ages of 25-40. The reasons for this might be lifestyle changes, similar to the West. If women under the age of 35 develop cancers, they tend to have a strong family history of ovarian or breast cancers. It is important to get counselled with a professional genetic counsellor.

Remember that ‘Breast Self-Examination” is the most important technique of identifying early breast diseases.  It has to be done every month. Make sure you reach out to a doctor if you find any abnormality in your breasts.

(This is this first article in a two-part series on breast changes)

Dr Pragnya Chigurupati Narra is a Breast Specialist & Oncoplastic Surgeon at American Oncology Institute


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News Network
July 15,2021

Jerusalem, July 15: Several Palestinian resistance factions have condemned the United Arab Emirates (UAE) for opening an embassy in Tel Aviv, only weeks after Israel massacred over 120 Palestinians in the long-besieged Gaza Strip.

Wednesday’s opening of the Emirati embassy, which is situated in the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange, came two weeks after the inauguration of Israel’s mission in Abu Dhabi.

The UAE, along with Bahrain, signed normalization pacts with the Israeli regime during an official ceremony hosted by former US president Donald Trump at the White House in September 2020. Palestinians slammed the deals as a treacherous "stab in the back" of their cause against the Israeli occupation.

In a statement released on Wednesday, the Gaza-based Hamas resistance movement said the UAE’s move signaled its continued insistence on the “great sin” it committed against Palestinians and all the people of the region who fully reject all forms of normalization with Israel.

“What is even more dangerous is the fact that this behavior of the UAE comes right after the terrorist Zionist aggression on our people and its sacred sites, in which it committed massacres against defenseless civilians and destroyed their houses” as the whole world watched, it added.

“This represents a dangerous downturn in the UAE’s political perspective, which would not only provide an official cover for the crimes committed by the Zionist enemy against the Palestinian people but would also encourage it to commit even more crimes and to move forward with its extremist racist Judaization projects.”

Hamas said the UAE and other Arab countries that normalized their relations with Israel will soon “discover the size and gravity of their crime,” urging them to “correct this wrong path and end all dealings and normalization with Israel.”

“We stress the need to stop this dangerous deterioration in the Emirati policies and to spare no effort in setting the course straight,” the movement added.


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July 19,2021

Kolkata, July 19: Thirteen years after their small car project was forced out of West Bengal following the anti-land acquisition movement in Singur, Industry and IT Minister Partha Chatterjee has said talks are on with the Tatas for big-ticket investments in the state.

Underscoring job creation as the TMC government's top priority, Chatterjee also said incentives to companies will depend on their ability to generate employment.

He said the Mamata Banerjee dispensation wants two large manufacturing units to be set up by any prominent industrial house at the earliest.

"We never had any enmity with the Tatas, neither we fought against them. They are one of the most respected and biggest business houses of this country and also abroad. You can't blame the Tatas (for the Singur fiasco).

"The problem was with the Left Front government and its forcible land acquisition policy. Tata group is always most welcome to come and invest in Bengal," Chatterjee, also the ruling TMC's secretary general, told PTI in an interview.

Chatterjee said the salt to steel business conglomerate has shown interest in setting up another Tata Centre in Kolkata to house its offices.

"We already have the presence of Tata Metaliks, one Tata Centre besides the TCS here. But if they are willing to come up with big-ticket investments in manufacturing or other sectors, there is no problem. Our IT secretary recently told me they had shown interest in setting up a Tata Centre here," he said.

When asked whether the state government will go the extra mile to reach out to the Tatas, Chatterjee said he is already in touch with group officials to attract investment.

Singur, once known for multiple crop farming, hogged media limelight after Tata Motors set its sight on the land to build its cheapest car Nano in 2006. The Left Front government acquired 997.11 acres along the National Highway 2 and handed it over to the company.

Mamata Banerjee, then in the opposition, called a 26- day hunger strike demanding the return of 347 acres of farmland that was "forcibly" acquired.

Despite several rounds of meetings between the TMC and the Left Front government, the issue could not be resolved and the Tatas eventually moved out of Singur to Sanand in Gujarat in 2008. The land acquired for the project was subsequently returned to farmers in 2016.

When asked whether the government will invite the Tatas to set up a manufacturing unit at Singur once again, the minister said, "Why would Tatas want to return to Singur? The land has already been given back to farmers. We are planning to come up with agro-based industries there as the area's economy is based on agriculture."

Speaking about the government's priority areas for rapid industrialisation and employment generation, Chatterjee said setting up two major manufacturing units, specifically in the iron and steel sector, topped the list.

"Industrialisation and job creation have been the focus areas in our party manifesto. No doubt it's a challenge as the situation across the globe is not conducive due to the Covid situation.

"Our priority right now would be to bring two big manufacturing companies which are job creators. I am speaking to various stakeholders, industry captains and officials about it. We are on the job," he said.

Chatterjee said although information technology does not fall in the category of manufacturing sector, the government is looking for more investments there too.

The minister assured the issue of delay in land acquisition and related approvals, and incentives sought by industry for setting up their units will be addressed promptly.

"We will simplify the process of clearances required for land needed for setting up industries. I will discuss the matter with our chief minister. There will be promptness so that industries don't have any complaints about delay," he said.

"Second is the incentive part. We earlier had an incentive scheme, but we did away with it as the incentives companies were seeking and offers they had for us in terms of job creation and revenue generation, did not balance out. Now incentives will be decided depending on their proposals and the scale of jobs that will be created," he said.

Chatterjee, however, emphatically noted that there won't be any change in the government's land policy of "no forcible acquisition".

The industry, he said, will have to acquire land on its own or from the government's notified land bank and industrial parks.

"It is our stated stand that there will be no forcible land acquisition," he said, adding West Bengal has good connectivity, infrastructure, and law and order conducive for industries. The labour is skilled and inexpensive, he said.

Chatterjee rejected suggestions that the anti-land acquisition agitations in Singur and Nandigram had given the TMC an anti-industry image. "Had it been the case, the party won't have won three consecutive terms in office with a resounding mandate," he asserted.

The minister replied in the negative to a question about whether the constant bickering between the state and the Centre will pose a hurdle in bringing in new investments, but advised the BJP-led government to follow the spirit of federalism. 


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July 24,2021


After around three months of consistent efforts, Mrs Sabiha, one of the two distressed women from Karnataka who were tortured by their sponsor for a prolonged period, finally touched down in India on Thursday July 22. She originally hails from Tumakuru district of Karnataka.

Mrs Sabiha boarded the flight on Thursday at Jeddah King Abdulaziz International Airport bound to Cochin International Airport at 8am (IST:10.30am) after her one month's stay under the shelter of Consulate General of India-Jeddah, she reached her hometown safely on July 23 before noon. 

All the legal formalities were completed about 10 days ago at Jawazaath in Jeddah Semaishi. However, due to the ticket issue that was supposed to be provided by the CGI Jeddah under ICWF provision, her departure was bit delayed. Even in the end, after repeated requests, she was not provided with the ticket by the CGI Jeddah putting the burden on the woman, who was already in the tight spot and penniless due to her sponsor's harassment and duping. Even after the persistent requests, the CGI had denied the ticket for her. 

Meanwhile, a businessman and philanthropist Mr Mustaq Ahmed Bengaluru in Jubail came forward voluntarily to sponsor the flight ticket for her after knowing her distressed and helpless situation.

The earliest flight directly to India (Cochin) from Jeddah was on July 22, so the ticket was sponsored to book the flight on the date to fly to Cochin.

At last, Sabiha reached her destination and breathed a sigh of relief after going through pains meted out against her by her sponsor, Saad Rahil Mukhlef Al-Anaizi based in Al Qurayath, northern part of Saudi Arabia, bordering to Jordan. 

Sabiha arrived in the KSA three years ago in 2018 on visit visa arranged by agents in Bengaluru and Mumbai under the sponsorship of Saad Al-Anaizi whom the agents know very well. She didn't know even the status of her visa as a visit (for 90 days), which doesn't allow her to work in the KSA as per the visit visa rule. Either it should have been renewed for a further period of time or visitor should have left the country before the visa expiry. But, either of the processes were not done by the sponsor and she was forced to work as a housemaid at his house. 

She faced her first problem from her Sponsor when she was sent to another family's house to work as a housemaid. She was hesitant to go there, but she was compelled to do so. After sometimes, she came back to her sponsor's house, where she continued to work helplessly even after the passing of 2years.

Due to this, she had to face severe tortures at his hands, she was neither allowed to go to India nor go outside of the sponsor's confined home despite of her repeated & consistent requests nor given salaries for about 9 months. 

She contacted Riyadh-based pro bono lawyer and social worker Adv. P.A. Hameed Padubidri for help through Mrs. Fairoza Banu, who was another woman, who was victimized by the same sponsor for the help. 

Firstly, Adv. P.A.Hameed tried to resolve the case through mutual talks with the sponsor, but it failed. He then took up the case with the Saudi Human Rights Commission (HRC) in AlJouf branch & Ministry of External Affairs, Delhi & the Indian Embassy in Riyadh. 

By taking up the case immediately on the list in May, 2021, the HRC contacted Adv. Padubidri to gather more details & background of the case. The HRC then forwarded the complaint to the concerned authorities  including police station in AlQurayath.The Embassy also involved based on the complaint & trailing communique of the MoEA, Delhi. 

With the intervention of all these agencies including Jawazaath (Directorate of Passport Dept), her sponsor agreed to send her together with Mrs. Fairoza Banu Dawanagere to India. He was also fined heavily for violating the visa rule of the KSA. 

First he sent Fairoza Banu to India via Riyadh-Qatar-Bengaluru in June 22, with valid flight tickets, passport & final exit paper & she reached Bengaluru KG Intl.Airport last month without much difficulties. 

However, Sabiha was duped by her sponsor sending her to Jeddah Intl. Airport with invalid dummy ticket that too without final exit document after getting her signature in the bus station at AlQurayath as if she had received all outstanding salaries & no dues from him although it's unpaid.  

When she reached the Jeddah airport, she came to know that she was mercilessly cheated by him. Finally, she landed at seeking the help of Indian Consulate (CGI) in Jeddah & remained there under the shelter of the CGI for one month until all the legal processes were facilitated by the authorities & she reached Jeddah airport on 22/07/2021 at 4am (Saudi time) to board the flight to India at 8am. 

She reached Cochin Airport on Thursday at 5.30 pm (IST) & she touched down her home place in Tumakuru, around 80 kms away from Bengaluru & now she joined with her family. 

With this, now both the ladies reached their respective home places in Karnataka with the great efforts of Adv. Padubidri with the supports of other two social workers in the KSA.

Adv. Padubidri expressed his immense amounts of thanks to AlQurayath- based social worker, Saleem Kodangalluru- Kerala, Dammam-based Social worker & senior resident, Yaseen Gulbarga for their very supports & constant cooperations since the day one. 

Adv. Padubidri also expressed his thanks to Mr. Mustaq Ahmed Bengaluru, who voluntarily offered the flight ticket for Sabiha, Mr. Mohammed Ahmed Mysore in Jeddah, Sirajuddeen TN Jeddah, Fazal Makkah, Mr. Majeed B.K.Riyadh, Yasser Ahmed Mulky Riyadh, Farook Manipal Jeddah & others, who supported in his endeavour to facilitate the return of distressed woman.


Adv. P.A. Hameed Padubidri 


Taher Ansar Khan
Saturday, 24 Jul 2021

Lots of respect to all who helped to woman reach her home... especially Mushtaq Ahmed Bangalore who sponsored free ticket to the woman...lots of respect and big salute musthaq Ahmed

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