Astronomers discover unusual monster galaxy from early universe

Agencies
February 6, 2020

Washington D.C., Feb 6: An international team of astronomers has found an unusual monster galaxy that existed about 12 billion years ago when the universe was only 1.8 billion years old.

The team of astronomers was led by scientists at the University of California, Riverside.

Dubbed XMM-2599, the galaxy formed stars at a high rate and then died. Why it suddenly stopped forming stars is unclear.

"Even before the universe was 2 billion years old, XMM-2599 had already formed a mass of more than 300 billion suns, making it an ultra massive galaxy," said Benjamin Forrest, a postdoctoral researcher in the UC Riverside Department of Physics and Astronomy and the study's lead author.

"More remarkably, we show that XMM-2599 formed most of its stars in a huge frenzy when the universe was less than 1 billion years old and then became inactive by the time the universe was only 1.8 billion years old," Forrest added.

The team used spectroscopic observations from the W. M. Keck Observatory's powerful Multi-Object Spectrograph for Infrared Exploration or MOSFIRE, to make detailed measurements of XMM-2599 and precisely quantify its distance.

The study results appear in the Astrophysical Journal.

"In this epoch, very few galaxies have stopped forming stars, and none are as massive as XMM-2599," said Gillian Wilson, a professor of physics and astronomy at UCR in whose lab Forrest works.

"The mere existence of ultramassive galaxies like XMM-2599 proves quite a challenge to numerical models. Even though such massive galaxies are incredibly rare at this epoch, the models do predict them."

"The predicted galaxies, however, are expected to be actively forming stars. What makes XMM-2599 so interesting, unusual, and surprising is that it is no longer forming stars, perhaps because it stopped getting fuel or its black hole began to turn on. Our results call for changes in how models turn off star formation in early galaxies," the professor stated.

The research team found XMM-2599 formed more than 1,000 solar masses a year in stars at its peak of activity -- an extremely high rate of star formation. In contrast, the Milky Way forms about one new star a year.

"XMM-2599 may be a descendant of a population of highly star-forming dusty galaxies in the very early universe that new infrared telescopes have recently discovered," said Danilo Marchesini, an associate professor of astronomy at Tufts University and a co-author on the study.

"We have caught XMM-2599 in its inactive phase," Wilson said, who led the W. M. Keck Observatory data acquisition
Co-author Michael Cooper, a professor of astronomy at UC Irvine, said this outcome is a strong possibility.

"Perhaps during the following 11.7 billion years of cosmic history, XMM-2599 will become the central member of one of the brightest and most massive clusters of galaxies in the local universe," he said.

"Alternatively, it could continue to exist in isolation. Or we could have a scenario that lies between these two outcomes," he stated.

The study was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation and NASA.

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Agencies
September 17,2020

Mumbai, Sept 17: Equity indices snapped a two-session rising streak to close with sharp losses on Thursday, in lockstep with global markets which recoiled after sobering economic assessment by the US Federal Reserve.

A weakening rupee and lack of fresh buying triggers further weighed on market mood, traders said.

The 30-share BSE Sensex opened lower and stayed in the negative zone throughout the session. It finally finished at 38,979.85, down by 323 points or 0.82 per cent.

Similarly, the NSE Nifty shed 88.45 points or 0.76 per cent to close at 11,516.10.

Bajaj Finserv was the top laggard in the Sensex pack, slipping 2.23 per cent, followed by PowerGrid, L&T, TCS, ICICI Bank, Kotak Bank, Tata Steel and Bajaj Finance.

On the other hand, HCL Tech, Infosys and Maruti finished with gains of up to 2.36 per cent.

Global equities swooned after the US Federal Reserve did not unveil any additional stimulus measures at its policy meet, even though it hinted at the key interest rate staying close to zero at least through 2023.

Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell also said the economic outlook is "highly uncertain", stoking fears of more pain in store for businesses.

"Indian markets reacted in sync with global markets, after the US Fed reserve failed to keep up with the expectations of the investors. In spite of pledging to keep interest rates low, markets were disappointed on the lack of further inputs or immediate stimulus measures.

"Continued border tensions with China also worried Indian markets. Markets are expected to remain uncertain and investors advised to remain cautious," said Vinod Nair, Head of Research at Geojit Financial Services.

BSE realty, metal, bankex, capital goods, finance, power and utilities indices dropped as much as 1.87 per cent, while healthcare, IT and teck closed in the green.

Broader BSE mid-cap and small-cap indices fell up to 0.53 per cent.

Shares of Happiest Minds Technologies made a stellar debut on the bourses, listing with a premium of over 111 per cent against its issue price of Rs 166. The stock finally finished at Rs 371, up 123.49 per cent over the issue price.

Bourses in Shanghai, Hong Kong, Seoul and Tokyo ended with significant losses.

Stock exchanges in Europe too opened on a negative note. M

Meanwhile, global oil benchmark Brent crude was trading 0.26 per cent lower at USD 42.11 per barrel.

The rupee depreciated 14 paise to close at 73.66 against the US dollar.

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News Network
September 21,2020

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Noida, Sept 21: Financial services app Paytm has accused Google of making policies that are over and above the laws of India after it was briefly delisted from the Playstore last week.

"As a startup, we are running law-abiding businesses and building for India. Google and its employees are making policies which are over and above the laws of our country, and are arbitrarily implementing them," it said in a blogpost.

Paytm said Google owns Android which is the operating system on which over 95 per cent of smartphones in India run. Google, as a result, has enormous control over which apps you download through its Playstore policies.

"It also makes billions of dollars in advertising revenues from the Indian startups that make these apps. In many cases like maps, email, payments, shopping and cloud storage, Google also has apps that compete with other apps, including, of course, the apps that are made by Indian startups."

Paytm said it had launched a campaign where users could collect cricket stickers and scratch cards to earn UPI cashback. The offer was applicable on recharges, utility payments, UPI money transfers and adding money to Paytm wallet.

On September 18, it got an email from Google Play Support informing that the Paytm Android app had been delisted.

This was the first time that Google was sending it a notification regarding its UPI cashback and scratch cards campaign.

"Contrary to accepted practise, we were not given any opportunity to respond to their concerns or put forth our views. We maintain that our cashback campaign was within guidelines, as well as all laws of the land. We did not break any rules and there was no violation. It is not related to gambling in any manner whatsoever," said Paytm.

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Agencies
September 14,2020

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New Delhi, Sept 14: Domestic equity benchmark Sensex jumped over 300 points in early trade on Monday tracking gains in index majors Reliance Industries, HDFC twins and HCL Tech amid positive global cues and fresh foreign fund inflow. The 30-share BSE index was trading 340.10 points or 0.88 per cent higher at 39,194.65; while the NSE Nifty rose 89.15 points or 0.78 per cent to 11,553.60.

HCL Tech was the top gainer in the Sensex pack, surging around 5 per cent, followed by Tech Mahindra, HDFC duo, Reliance Industries, TCS, SBI and IndusInd Bank. On the other hand, HUL, Asian Paints, Maruti, Bajaj Auto and Nestle India were among the laggards.

In the previous session, Sensex ended 14.23 points or 0.04 per cent higher at 38,854.55, while the broader Nifty rose 15.20 points or 0.13 per cent to close at 11,464.45. Exchange data showed that foreign institutional investors bought equities worth Rs 1,175.81 crore on a net basis on Friday. Domestic equities opened on a positive note tracking positive cues from global markets and persistent foreign fund inflow, traders said.

Bourses in Shanghai, Hong Kong, Seoul and Tokyo were trading with gains in mid-day deals after Biopharmaceutical giant AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford on Saturday resumed trials for their coronavirus vaccine in the UK after the Medicines Health Regulatory Authority's approval. The human trials resumed days after a pause was announced in the trials after an adverse reaction in one of the participants. Meanwhile, global oil benchmark Brent crude was trading 0.35 per cent lower at USD 39.97 per barrel. 

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