All you need to know about Head and Neck Cancer

Dr Sashikanth Jonnalagadda 
April 14, 2021

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The Head and Neck is a very complex region of the body and consists of several subsites like the Oral Cavity, Oropharynx (Throat), Larynx (voice box), Thyroid, Paranasal Sinuses, and Neck Lymph Nodes. Cancer that occurs in the Oral Cavity (mouth), throat, nose, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands, and other areas of the head and neck are considered Head and Neck cancer.  
  
Squamous cell carcinomas arise in the lining of the mouth, nose, and throat, account for the majority of these cancers.  
  
Because of the widespread use of Tobacco (gutka, pan masala, and betelnut), oral cancers are the most common form of cancer in India and it accounts for roughly 30 percent of all cancers in the body. Oral Cancers and other Head and Neck Cancers are also increased by smoking and alcohol consumption. 
  
Approximately 20 people out of 1,00,000 population are diagnosed with Head and Neck Cancer.  
  
It is very important to pay attention to symptoms such as non-healing ulcers in the mouth or throat, bleeding from mouth or nose, persisting sore throat, breathing or swallowing difficulty, change in voice, and swellings in the neck and face region. 
  
Head and neck tumors affect the patient's ability to chew, swallow, speak and breathe. As a result, early detection of the tumor is critical in order to increase the patient's chances of survival as well as his or her ability to speak and swallow normally during treatment. 
  
Treatment Options 

These symptoms need to be evaluated with a concerned Head and Neck Onco Surgeons who helps patients to make an informed decision about their treatment options.  The first step is to obtain a tissue sample from the affected area, which is done by a biopsy. The type of cancer will be confirmed by Histopathology, which will decide further management. 
 
The next step is staging, which entails deciding how far cancer has spread. It will be obtained by Radiological Imaging such as CT, MRI, and, on rare occasions PET scan. 
 
Cancers can be classified into four stages based on the extent of their spread. Usually, head and neck cancers are treated with surgery followed by adjuvant treatment such as radiation and chemotherapy, if necessary. The tumor and neck nodes are removed during surgery. Plastic surgery procedures are used to reconstruct the shape and function of the removed organ, allowing the patient to appear and function as normally as possible. 
  
After the treatment, the patient is kept on close surveillance for 3 to 5 years with a follow-up with his or her Head and Neck Surgeon. 

 

By Dr. Sashikanth Jonnalagadda is the Consultant - ENT, Head and Neck Oncology at American Oncology Institute

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News Network
July 15,2024

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The Karnataka Congress on Monday junked reports that the State Road Transport Corporation would be hiking bus fares. The party on X noted that transport minister has not placed any such proposals before the government.

The party's account further noted that BJP leaders should 'stop spreading lies' and rather answer about the increase in auto part prices, fuel prices, and train fares in the last ten years.

Karnataka Congress, in the post, continued that people should be allowed to answer about the burden on state governments due to the central government's price hike policy.

BJP leaders like Tejasvi Surya took potshots at the Congress government over news of the alleged fare hike, attributing it to the party's 'Khatakhat Model of Governance.'

KSRTC chairperson, S R Srinivas, however said on Sunday that the body has submitted a proposal to the government to hike the fare by 15 to 20 per cent.

"We had a board meeting two days ago. We have proposed a hike of 15 per cent to 20 per cent. The rest is up to the discretion of Chief Minister Siddaramaiah. If KSRTC is to survive, fare hike is inevitable," he said.

The chairperson also noted that fuel and auto parts have seen prices go up substantially, but there has been no increase in bus fares since 2019.

"The salary revision of the KSRTC employees has not been done since 2020. Hence, increasing the ticket price is necessary," Srinivas added.

As per the chairperson, the corporation has suffered a loss of Rs 295 crore in the last three months.

To a question on whether the hike would burden male passengers since women are allowed to travel free of cost under the 'Shakti' scheme, Srinivas said there is no question of putting burden only on men. He noted that the state government continues to bear the expenses for women travelling in buses.

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News Network
July 7,2024

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Henley & Partners Passport Index revealed India's passport strength improved by three position in 2024. The Indian passport is currently ranked 80th place as it has weakened during the past ten years of Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s rule. It has dropped from 76th position to 80th. 

The Index is based on exclusive International Air Transport Authority (Iata) data. In addition, publicly available and reliable online sources were also used to cross-check each passport against all 227 possible travel destinations.

List of countries Indian nationals can visit visa-free or get visa-on-arrival in 2024:

Africa: Angola, Burundi, Cape Verde islands, Comoro Islands, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Zimbabwe

Asia: Bhutan, Cambodia, Indonesia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Laos, Macao (SAR China), Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines (valid or unexpired American, Japanese, Australian, Canadian, Schengen, Singapore or UK visa, or permanent residence permit from these states) Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor-Leste

Americas: Bolivia, El Salvador

Caribbean: Barbados, British Virgin Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago

Oceania: Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Niue, Palau Islands, Samoa, Tuvalu, Vanuatu

Middle East: Jordan, Oman, Qatar

NOTE for UAE: As of December 6, 2023, Indian nationals with a normal passport valid for a minimum of six months from the arrival date, holding a visit visa or green card issued by the US which is valid for a minimum of six months or a UK or EU residence ID which is valid for a minimum of six months, can obtain a visa on arrival for a maximum stay of 14 days for a charge of Dh191 (subject to change). They can apply to extend their stay for an additional 14 days for Dh250 (subject to change) through Amer offices in Dubai.

Indian nationals holding an extension letter for US residency are not eligible for a visa on arrival. (According to a note published on Emirates airline website).

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coastaldigest.com news network
July 11,2024

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Mangaluru: Two athletes from Mangaluru are gearing up to represent India at the Paris Olympics starting on July 26. Poovamma MR, a seasoned member of the Indian women’s 4x400m relay team, and Mijo Chacko Kurian, selected for the men’s 4x400m relay team, are poised to showcase their talent on the international stage.

Poovamma MR had a notable moment recently, marking her third interaction with Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Reflecting on her journey, she shared with the Prime Minister that she was just 18 when she served as a reserve member for the 2008 Olympics and was part of the team again in 2016. 

Determined to break a longstanding barrier, she mentioned that the team hadn't reached the finals since 2002, but this time, they aim to create a national record and secure a spot in the finals. The Prime Minister commended her confidence and dedication.

“This was my third interaction with the PM. I met him in 2014 and 2018. Earlier, we showed him our medals, and he congratulated us. This time, he asked us questions about our experiences and aspirations. It felt wonderful,” Poovamma remarked. Currently training in Patiala, she is set to depart for a 20-day training camp in Poland before heading to Paris.

In contrast, Mijo Chacko Kurian is making his Olympic debut. His journey began in class XII when he switched from cricket to athletics upon seeing runners at the NMPT stadium while Mangala Stadium was under renovation. 

Living nearby, he approached the coach and joined the training sessions. Despite initial struggles, he balanced his studies in engineering with his growing passion for athletics. His dedication paid off, leading him to leave college after two-and-a-half years to focus fully on his athletic career. Now a junior warrant officer with the Indian Air Force, Mijo is ready to make his mark in Paris.

As these athletes prepare for their Olympic journey, their stories of perseverance and dedication inspire many back home, highlighting the vibrant sporting spirit of Mangaluru.

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